Building Robust SwiftUI Apps with the MVVM Pattern: A Comprehensive Tutorial

In modern app development, creating scalable and maintainable code is crucial. To achieve this, architectural patterns like the Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) pattern have gained popularity. In this tutorial, we will explore how to implement the MVVM pattern in SwiftUI, Apple’s declarative framework for building user interfaces. By leveraging the power of SwiftUI and the MVVM pattern, developers can create robust and testable apps with separation of concerns and improved code reusability.


To follow along with this tutorial, you should have a basic understanding of SwiftUI, Swift, and the MVVM architectural pattern.

Understanding the MVVM Pattern:

The MVVM pattern separates the user interface (View) from the business logic (ViewModel) and the data (Model). This separation allows for better code organization, testability, and maintainability.

In MVVM, the View binds to properties exposed by the ViewModel, and any user interactions trigger actions in the ViewModel. The ViewModel then updates the Model and notifies the View of any changes. This two-way data binding ensures that the View always reflects the current state of the data.

Implementing the MVVM Pattern in SwiftUI:

To illustrate the usage of the MVVM pattern in SwiftUI, let’s create a simple app that displays a list of tasks and allows the user to mark them as completed.

Step 1: Define the Model
Create a struct called `Task` that represents a single task. It should have properties like `title` and `isCompleted`.

struct Task {
    let title: String
    var isCompleted: Bool

Step 2: Create the ViewModel
Create a class called `TaskViewModel` that will be responsible for managing the tasks. It should have an array of `Task` objects and expose properties and methods for interacting with the tasks.

class TaskViewModel: ObservableObject {
    @Published var tasks: [Task] = [
        Task(title: "Buy groceries", isCompleted: false),
        Task(title: "Clean the house", isCompleted: false),
        Task(title: "Finish work project", isCompleted: false)
    func markTaskAsCompleted(at index: Int) {
        tasks[index].isCompleted = true

Step 3: Create the View
Create a SwiftUI view called `TaskListView` that displays the list of tasks and allows the user to mark them as completed.

struct TaskListView: View {
    @ObservedObject var viewModel: TaskViewModel
    var body: some View {
        List(viewModel.tasks.indices, id: \.self) { index in
            HStack {
                if viewModel.tasks[index].isCompleted {
                    Image(systemName: "checkmark")
            .onTapGesture {
                viewModel.markTaskAsCompleted(at: index)

Step 4: Connect the View and ViewModel
In your app’s entry point, create an instance of `TaskViewModel` and pass it to the `TaskListView`.

struct MVVMTutorialApp: App {
    let viewModel = TaskViewModel()
    var body: some Scene {
        WindowGroup {
            TaskListView(viewModel: viewModel)


By implementing the MVVM pattern in SwiftUI, we can achieve a clean separation of concerns, making our code more modular, maintainable, and testable. SwiftUI’s declarative syntax, combined with the MVVM pattern, allows us to build robust apps with ease.

In this tutorial, we learned how to implement the MVVM pattern in SwiftUI by creating a simple task list app. We defined the Model, created the ViewModel to manage the tasks, and built the View to display and interact with the tasks. By following this pattern, we can easily extend and enhance our app’s functionality without compromising its maintainability.

Remember, the MVVM pattern is a powerful tool for building scalable and maintainable apps, but it is not the only solution. Depending on the complexity of your project, other architectural patterns like MVC or VIPER might be more suitable. Experiment with different patterns to find the best fit for your specific needs.

Happy coding and happy SwiftUI development!

One thought on “Building Robust SwiftUI Apps with the MVVM Pattern: A Comprehensive Tutorial

  1. The first 2 things you should learn about SwiftUI is the View struct is the view model already so there is no need to reimplement what it does it in your own view model object. And also don’t use indices or id:\.self with a List or ForEach because it’ll crash when the data changes.

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