Building Scalable SwiftUI Apps with the VIPER Architecture: A Step-by-Step Tutorial

In SwiftUI app development, creating maintainable and scalable code is crucial for long-term success. One architectural pattern that can help achieve these goals is the VIPER pattern. In this tutorial, we will explore how to implement the VIPER (View, Interactor, Presenter, Entity, Router) architecture in SwiftUI. By leveraging the power of SwiftUI and the VIPER pattern, developers can build well-structured, modular, and testable apps.


To follow along with this tutorial, you should have a basic understanding of SwiftUI, Swift, and the VIPER architectural pattern.

Understanding the VIPER Pattern:

The VIPER pattern is an application of Clean Architecture that promotes separation of concerns and testability. It divides the application into five components:

– View: Handles the UI layout and user interactions.
– Interactor: Contains the business logic and coordinates data flow.
– Presenter: Formats and prepares data for presentation in the View.
– Entity: Represents the data objects used by the Interactor and Presenter.
– Router: Handles navigation and routing between different screens.

Implementing the VIPER Pattern in SwiftUI:

To illustrate the usage of the VIPER pattern in SwiftUI, let’s create a simple app that displays a list of tasks and allows the user to mark them as completed.

Step 1: Define the Entities
Create a struct called `Task` that represents a single task. It should have properties like `title` and `isCompleted`.

struct Task {
    let title: String
    var isCompleted: Bool

Step 2: Create the Interactor
Create a class called `TaskInteractor` that will be responsible for managing the tasks. It should have methods for fetching and updating tasks.

class TaskInteractor {
    func fetchTasks() -> [Task] {
        // Logic to fetch tasks from a data source
    func updateTask(task: Task) {
        // Logic to update the task in a data source

Step 3: Create the Presenter
Create a class called `TaskPresenter` that will format and prepare the data for presentation in the View. It should have methods for fetching tasks and updating tasks.

class TaskPresenter {
    private let interactor: TaskInteractor
    init(interactor: TaskInteractor) {
        self.interactor = interactor
    func fetchTasks() -> [Task] {
        return interactor.fetchTasks()
    func updateTask(task: Task) {
        interactor.updateTask(task: task)

Step 4: Create the View
Create a SwiftUI view called `TaskListView` that displays the list of tasks and allows the user to mark them as completed. It should have a reference to the Presenter.

struct TaskListView: View {
    @StateObject var presenter: TaskPresenter
    var body: some View {
        List(presenter.fetchTasks(), id: \.self) { task in
            HStack {
                if task.isCompleted {
                    Image(systemName: "checkmark")
            .onTapGesture {
                presenter.updateTask(task: task)

Step 5: Create the Router
Create a class called `TaskRouter` that handles navigation and routing between different screens. In this case, we won’t cover navigation, but you can extend this class to handle it.

class TaskRouter {
    // Routing logic goes here

Step 6: Connect the Components
In your app’s entry point, create instances of the Interactor, Presenter, and View, and connect them together.

struct VIPERTutorialApp: App {
    let interactor = TaskInteractor()
    let presenter: TaskPresenter
    let router = TaskRouter()
    init() {
        presenter = TaskPresenter(interactor: interactor)
    var body: some Scene {
        WindowGroup {
            TaskListView(presenter: presenter)


By implementing the VIPER pattern in SwiftUI, we can achieve a modular, scalable, and testable architecture for our apps. SwiftUI’s declarative syntax, combined with the VIPER pattern, allows us to build maintainable and robust apps.

In this tutorial, we learned how to implement the VIPER pattern in SwiftUI by creating a simple task list app. We defined the Entities, created the Interactor to manage the tasks, built the Presenter to format and prepare the data, created the View to display and interact with the tasks, and introduced the Router for navigation.

Remember, the VIPER pattern is just one of many architectural patterns available, and its suitability may vary depending on the complexity of your project. Experiment with different patterns to find the best fit for your specific needs.

Happy coding and happy SwiftUI development with the VIPER pattern!

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